手游五虎将无限金币:15个“撇步”让你妙笔生花

来源:百度文库 编辑:中财网 时间:2021/01/17 13:14:35

清空了脑袋里的噪音之后,终于在纸上写了点东西——写完了一篇文啊。

 

First of all, a big congratulations to you. First drafts are often the easiest to write provided you have understood them for what they are; just the first drafts – the initial write up. You will have many of them.

首先得热烈地祝贺你。通常只要有点概念就能写成初稿;但这只是初稿——终稿还有的写呢。还得写好多东西。

 

According to Natalie Goldberg of Bird by Bird and Writing Down the Bones, they are almost always shitty and you don’t know what your finished piece looks like – yet. But that’s ok, because now the real work of writing starts.
Gather your draft and start editing. This is where craft and structure begin.

《Bird by Bird》(木有找到中文书名,不好意思。有找到的朋友告诉我下哦,谢啦!)与《再活一次》的作者纳塔莉·戈德堡说,初稿都不堪入目,但你不会知道终稿会写成什么样子——永远都不会知道。没关系,因为真正的写作现在才刚刚开始。

整理整理稿子开始改吧。文章有没有条理,作者水平高不高现在才真正体现出来。

#1 Read Aloud

#1 大声朗读 

Read the text aloud to yourself. You will discover many inconsistencies in your writing that you will not be able to discover otherwise.

把文章大声地读给自己听,这样就能发现文中许多矛盾之处,但用其它方式可是找不出来的呦。 

Sometimes, your writing will feel jittery and you may stumble over words. Make a note of it all. Aim to read it without watching it fall flat.

有时候,读的时候也许会觉得紧张不安,还磕磕绊绊的。那就把有问题的地方都标记出来吧,直到能顺畅地读下来,而不是把问题放在那,无动于衷。 

Read each piece at least once, listening for crazy sentences. Rewrite more by simply saying out loud what you are really trying to say.

每篇文章至少朗读一遍,听听看有没有奇奇怪怪的句子。把你想表达的大声说出来,再试着修改原文。 

#2 Read for Voice

#2 找找语调 

Have you found your voice yet, or are you still working on it? Either way, read your draft to see if it sounds like you.

是否找到了适合文章的语调呢,还是仍在努力寻找?无论如何,把稿子读出来,看看是不是自己的风格。 

Can your voice be heard? Does your writing resonate with the sound of your voice? Can your reader guess it might be you who have written the post? If not, rewrite to let your personality shine through.

能听到自己的声音么?你的文章和语调是否一致呢?读者能不能猜到这稿子是你写的呢?如果他们猜不出来,那就重写吧,尽情展现自己的风格。 

A strong voice will add authenticity to your work. Choose your words carefully and soulfully. Readers always appreciate this quality in writing.

强硬的语气能使文章更可信哦。谨慎措辞,用心感受,这样写出来的文章可是大受读者欢迎的呢。 

#3 Keep Your Readers in Mind

#3 谨记读者 

Who have you written this piece for? Imagine them when you are reading it again.

文章的读者群是谁?第二次读文的时候可得把读者都记在脑子里呢。 

Is your language appropriate? Have you confused or patronized them, appeared sexist? Have you said anything that might not sit well with your audience?

表述是否恰当?有没有把读者弄晕,有没有傲慢无礼,有没有大男子主义呢?有没有写一些读者不待见的东西呢? 

You want to be considerate of your audience – neither appearing to be snobbish, nor talking to them like you would to a child. Show your respect for your readers.

要想对读者体贴入微——就既不能势利,又不能幼稚。尊重读者。 

Keeping their faces in mind, change any sections that you have doubts about.

谨记读者,有疑虑立即修改, 

#4 Is your Lead Right?

#4 下对饵料 

Is your lead like bait that will pull your readers in or something that would repel them?

你的文章有没有吊足了读者的胃口,是不是能引他们上钩呢? 

When you are writing a narrative, you are telling a story. Your beginning needs to pull the reader in. Let your reader know what your piece is about.

叙事类的文章就是讲故事,开头就要让读者欲罢不能,让读者知道这文章写的究竟是什么。 

Clue them in early so they know exactly what to expect. They need to go through the experience with you. If kept in the dark for long, they might lose interest quickly and drift away. Provide them with details that will invoke their interest in the topic.

早些给读者点线索,这样他们就有个盼头。得让读者和你一起感受。如果伏笔埋得太深,读者很快就会兴致缺缺,转移阵地了。要是文章标题里能给他们点内容提示,说不定还能勾起他们的兴趣。 

#5 Is Your Conclusion Right?

#5 结尾精准么? 

What is the point to your writing?

写作的目的是什么? 

Through your insights or your take on something, the reader can connect with the experience you write about. The ending needs to bring them some understanding and insight, or lead to a slight shift in awareness. If your writing doesn’t do anything like that, you need to revisit its purpose.

读者能够透过你对某一样事物的理解和看法,跟你的写作经验产生共鸣。文章的结尾要易于理解,寓意深刻,或是能稍稍改变下他们的想法。如果上面几点都做不到,那可得好好反省反省你的写作目的了。 

You need a beginning, a middle and an end – its that simple. Pay attention to your ending, you must get it right. If you are not happy with it, rework it.

开头,正文,结尾——就这么简单。特别注意文章的结尾,必须得精准无误。要是不满意,就重写。 

#6 Smooth Out Changes in Tone

#6 语气变化 

Your tone is your attitude towards the topic, reader and yourself. It is impossible to write without a tone – it is apparent in the selection of your words.

你的语气就是你对主题、对读者甚至是对你自己的态度。一篇文章是不可能没有基调的——措辞就透露了你的态度。 

Your voice, tone and structure will emerge as you write. It’s impossible to do that in your head. You have to have a first draft in front of you to begin your critique. Only by writing, you will be able to figure out what works and what doesn’t.

音调、语气以及文章的条理会随着你的写作显现出来。光靠脑子想是不大可能的。在评判之前,你首先得有初稿可看。只有在写作中你才会慢慢知道什么有用,什么没用。 

Read again to see if there are any many clashes in tone. Decide on the dominant one and keep it constant throughout. Make sure your writing maintains a consistent tone.

再读一读,看看文章的语气中有没有过多的冲撞。确定文章的基调,并保持上下一致。确保你的文章连贯通畅。 

#7 Use Verb Contractions

#7 用词简短 

If your tone allows it, if the rhythm permits it, use contractions to lighten your prose. Instead of saying ‘You were not even listening, say you weren’t even listening to me. Replace I will come with I’ll come and so on.

在文章基调及韵律允许的情况下,利用缩略词让散文熠熠生辉。不要说‘你根本就没听,而要说你没听我说’。把我会来的换成我会来等表达方式。 

#8 Look at Paragraphs Again

#8 再读段落 

Does your paragraph have a topic sentence that supports one point for the whole paragraph?

你的每个段落都有能概括中心意思的主题句么? 

Each paragraph should be a series of sentences exploring one main idea. Every sentence should relate to that main point. New thought? Start another one.

每一个段落中都要有一串句子来表达中心意思。每句话都要和主旨相关。又有新想法了?还是下一篇文章再写吧。 

Your paragraphs should connect with each other in a logical, seamless flow. Use transitions to logically connect one paragraph to another.

段与段之间要有逻辑,上下一致。利用过渡合理连接各个段落。 

Vary the length of your paragraphs to make them more interesting.

段落的长短变化会使文章更生动有趣哦。 

#9 Vary Length of Sentences

#9 长短变化 

Have you varied the length of your sentences? Give your reader’s mind and eye a rest by doing that. Split long sentences into two to make them reader friendly.

句子的长短有变化么?变一变,脑子眼睛歇一歇。长句变短句,读者更“悦读”哦。 

#10 Fix Run-on Sentences

#10 别不分段 

A run-on sentence is not necessarily one that goes on and on. It is perfectly fine to craft long sentences.

不分段的句式可不是让你滔滔不绝地往下说哦。精雕细琢的长句也未尝不可。 

A run-on sentence is when two or more clauses (complete meanings) are joined by a comma instead of being separated by a full stop. You can also use a conjunction to connect the clauses.

不分段的句式指的是那些只用逗号连接的两个或两个以上的分句(语义完整),丝毫不见句号的踪影。其实你也可以用连词连接分句嘛。 

I went to a party, I was really exhausted. This is a run on sentence, it has two complete ideas.

I went to a party. Afterwards, I was really exhausted. Or

I went to a party but I was really exhausted afterwards. Both are correct.

“我去参加派对了,我累趴下了。”这就是不分段的句式,表达的完全是两个意思嘛。

“我去参加派对了。后来,我就累趴下了。”或者

“我去参加派对了,但后来我就累趴下了。”这两种说法都是正确的。 

Get rid of any run-on sentences and excessive commas. Use full stops more boldly. Could you improve your sentences by restructuring them?

千万不要不分段,也不要过多地使用逗号。大胆地用句号吧。 

#11 Get Rid of Clichés

#11 套话走开 

Cliches are sprinkled in to make your writing feel professional, often it does the opposite.

偶尔一两句套话能使文章显得专业一点,但用多了可就适得其反了。 

The only thing that your writing needs is that it is honest and specific. You don’t have to use fancy, clever or literary language.

写文章唯一的要求就是态度诚恳,细节详尽。没必要把文章写得花里胡哨,精妙绝伦,还文邹邹的。 

Instead of using cliches, aim to write to surprise your reader. Say something unexpected, use humour and delight them, and enjoy yourself in the process.

不要用陈词滥调,而是要写能让读者惊讶的文章。比如写点出乎读者意料的东西,用点幽默,让读者笑笑。享受写作的这个过程吧。 

#12 Use Exclamation Marks Sparingly

#12 少用感叹号 

You need emotion in your writing: anger, grief, frustration, embarrassment, fear, love are all that makes it interesting. However, don’t try to bring attention to them by using exclamation marks. Use strong, vivid words to communicate that instead.

文章得有感情:愤怒,悲痛,挫败,尴尬,恐惧,爱恋,这些通通都能让文章趣味盎然。但是千万别用感叹号强调这些情感。用一些语气强烈,生动的词语表达出来就可以了。 

A sentence that falls flat without using an exclamation mark, is a flat sentence. It should have the same impact, even when you take the exclamation mark away.

不使用感叹号就达不到预期效果的句子就是个平句了。就是把感叹号拿掉,平句也应该有同样的效果, 

#13 Check for Qualifiers

#13 检查修饰语 

Check your use of adjectives and qualifiers (words that precede qualifiers) such as very, little, quite, rather, just, indeed etc.

好好检查检查形容词和修饰语(在修饰语前面的词语),比如非常,一点,十分,相当,仅仅,确实等等。 

Use strong words, use them with authority.

语气强烈的词语要使用,但要有技巧地使用。 

#14 Eliminate Unnecessary Words

#14 删多余字词 

We use thousands of unnecessary words in our writing. Go back and revise, cut everything that you can without affecting the meaning and the message in your piece. If you won’t notice its gone, remove it.

数一数,文章里多余字词还真的是成百上千。回文章当中好好看看,再修改修改,那些对文章意义的表述,信息的传达没有影响的内容都要删掉。如果有些词句可有可无,那就删掉吧。 

Every single word must pull its weight. Tighten your prose. Eliminate repetitious information.

每一个字都要有分量。文章要写得紧凑。把重复的信息通通删掉。 

#15 Proofread

#15 校对 

Finally, proofread. Make any last minute corrections.

终于到了校对这一步了。就是到交稿的最后一秒钟也要修改。 

Give it at least twenty four hours. Its handy to change the font, size or colour when you do. The text will feel fresh, like you are reading it for the first time.

最起码留24小时的时间校稿。改个字体、字号、颜色的,不费吹灰之力。而文章却焕然一新,就像是第一次看到这篇文章一样。 

Many people still rush through this stage and inevitably end up with typos and other mistakes in their writing. Be thorough, use a spell-check.

许多人校稿都是匆匆了事,这样一来,错别字等低级错误就不可避免。检查一定要仔细,用用拼写检查。 

You know you are done, when you have done the best you can. Relax, and be proud.

竭尽全力之后,你就知道大作完工了。放轻松,小小地骄傲下吧。 

Which aspect of editing do you dread the most? What excites you? Share you best editing and revision tips in the comments below.

编稿的哪一步让你步步惊心?哪一步又让你兴奋莫名?在评论框里分享下你最棒的编稿/修稿经历吧。